Proficient Homework

# Chemistry Practice Problems for Placement: Timed! 2 hours given! Under 16 Questions MUST BE CHEM EXPERT

Timed Practice Questions! (2 hours for 16 Multiple Choice/Free response Questions!) -Would want to take it in a few hour-Would need back and fourth communicationsTopics Included! Please be familiar as this is timed and we wouldn’t have time to learn concepts.Module 1 – The first law of thermodynamics and thermochemistryPart A: Thermodynamic systems1. Define thermodynamic state.2. Categorize thermodynamic systems and thermodynamic functions.3. Calculate changes in ideal gas properties using the ideal gas law.4. Calculate partial pressures.Part B: Heat, work,and the first law of thermodynamics1. Define work, heat, heat capacity, temperature, and internal energy.2. Explain the difference between reversible and irreversible processes.3. Derive and utilize an expression for work due to expansion against constant pressure andto isothermal reversible expansion.4. Interconvert between heat, heat capacity, and temperature change.5. Use calorimetry data to calculate heats of reaction.6. Relate changes in internal energy to work and heat using the first law of thermodynamics.7. Explain why the internal energy of an ideal gas depends only on temperature.Part C: Enthalpy and the molecular basis of heat capacity1. Show why the heat for a thermodynamic process (including a chemical reaction) occurringat constant pressure equals the enthalpy change.2. Explain why constant pressure molar heat capacities are generally greater than constantvolume molar heat capacities.3. Calculate the constant volume molar heat capacity from the constant pressure molar heatcapacity of an ideal gas and vice versa.4. Predict the molar heat capacities of ideal gases using the equipartition theorem.5. Define enthalpy of fusion and enthalpy of vaporization.6. Interpret heating curves and use them to determine heat capacities and phase transitionenthalpies.7. Calculate temperature changes from enthalpy changes and vice versa given heatcapacities and phase transition enthalpies.Part D: Thermochemistry1. Define thermochemistry, thermochemical equation, and thermodynamic standard state.2. Rationalize the difference between the internal energy change and the enthalpy change fora chemical reaction occurring at constant pressure.3. Explain why constant volume calorimetry is a measure of reaction internal energy, whileconstant pressure calorimetry is a measure of reaction enthalpy.4. Calculate the reaction enthalpy from the reaction internal energy and vice versa.5. Use Hess’s law to determine reaction enthalpies.6. Define what we mean by an element’s reference state.7. Define standard enthalpy of formation.8. Write the formation reaction for a compound given its molecular formula.9. Determine standard reaction enthalpies from standard enthalpies of formation and viceversa.10. Correct standard reaction enthalpies for temperature differences.11. Estimate reaction enthalpies from bond enthalpy data.Module 2 – The second and third laws of thermodynamics, entropy, and free energyPart A: Spontaneity and the second law1. Define spontaneity and its relationship to equilibrium and reversibility.2. State and explain the verbal and mathematical statements of the second law.3. Show that the verbal and mathematical statements of the second law are equivalent.4. Calculate entropy changes associated with isothermal changes in the volume of an idealgas, with phase transitions, and with temperature changes.5. Use the statistical definition of entropy to explain why spontaneous processes areassociated with an increase in entropy.6. Use the statistical definition of entropy to determine entropy changes and predictspontaneity due to changes in multiplicity.7. Demonstrate the equivalence of the statistical and classical definitions of entropy byconsidering the relationship of entropy to volume.8. Define standard molar entropies and explain how they are determined.9. Calculate standard reaction entropies from standard molar entropies.Part B: Total entropy and Gibbs free energy1. Explain the relationship between the total entropy change, spontaneity, reversibility, andequilibrium.2. Calculate the entropy change of the surroundings for a thermodynamic process andcombine it with the entropy change of the system to determine the total entropy change.3. Explain how temperature affects spontaneity for exothermic and endothermic reactions.4. Relate the Gibbs free energy change of the system to the total entropy change and tospontaneity.5. Calculate reaction free energy changes from free energy of formation data.6. Calculate reaction free energy changes from enthalpy and entropy data.7. Determine if a reaction is enthalpically driven, entropically driven, both, or neither.8. Interpret phase diagrams.9. Explain how exergonic reactions can be used to do non-expansion work.