Proficient Homework

Describe how the Civil War impacted the staff of Bellevue Hospital.

Read & Review

  • Read Chapter 5: A Hospital at War
  • Read Chapter 10: Germ Theory
  • Read Chapter 11: A Tale of Two Presidents


Discussion: How have bacterial infections impacted patients and patient care at Bellevue?

Learning Outcomes

Students will have mastered the material in the module when they can:

  • Describe how the Civil War impacted the staff of Bellevue Hospital.
  • Describe the events that impacted the poor and less fortunate during the Civil War.
  • Discuss in detail how germ theory revolutionized medicine and what ideas of infection and disease the theory replaced.
  • Discuss in detail how two United States Presidents were impacted by germ theory.


During the Civil War, many Bellevue physicians enlisted and treated the wounded on the battlefield, and in make-shift hospitals.  Lessons learned in that conflict were the basis of medical texts that improved surgery and the treatment of traumatic wounds; these physicians did not know it at the time, but the absence of germ theory, just a few years away, was an important void in the text.  Draft riots that occurred in New York City during the war resulted in many injured persons being treated at Bellevue.  Germ there was imported from Germany in the 1870’s and revolutionized healthcare in a way that may have no rival.  Perhaps the ‘last-straw’ for miasma theory, President Garfield was shot and superficially wounded in 1881, but he died of a bacterial infection a couple of months later; it is widely believed that the use of sanitary instruments would have prevented the infection and saved the president’s life.

pleasee refrence apa style only can use this book

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